The world labor market and its features in modern conditions.

The world labor market and its features in modern conditions.
The world labor market and its features in modern conditions.
The consequences of labor migration for exporting countries and labor-importing countries.
The international division of labor involves not only the exchange of goods produced on the basis of the division of labor, but also the interstate movement of labor itself – the international migration of labor. The cross-country movement of the labor force has a specific character, since the labor force is not only an object, but also a subject of international economic relations.
^ The world labor market and its features in modern conditions.
The world labor market is formed by the export and import of labor. At the same time, an increasing number of states are attracting foreign labor or sending labor migrants abroad.
labor emigration, i.e. the exit of the able-bodied population to another country,
labor immigration, i.e. the arrival of labor in the country.
The following types of labor migration are distinguished:
The dimensions of international migration are steadily growing. A new phenomenon was the gradual erasure of the borders between the countries that accept and supply labor. In modern conditions, an increasing number of countries are involved in the process of simultaneous emigration and immigration of the population. In the international migration of the population, qualitative changes have recently occurred, conditioned by the scientific and technological revolution, their essence consists in a significant increase in the proportion of migrants with a high level of education and professional qualifications. This is due, on the one hand, to the huge difference in the remuneration of specialists in developed and backward countries, and on the other hand, by the desire of the developed countries to attract workers of scarce specialties into their economies, while saving them on their training.
Western Europe. Highly developed countries (Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, etc.) attract foreign workers from the countries of South, Central and Eastern Europe, Turkey and Arab countries.
Oil producing countries of Western Asia. Immigrants arrive in the Persian Gulf states from nearby Arab countries, as well as from India, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines.
USA and Canada. Labor immigration is divided into two streams: a low-skilled labor force comes from Mexico, the Caribbean, the Philippines; highly skilled workers immigrate from Western Europe, Russia, and India.
Features of modern world labor markets are as follows [6, pp.256-257].
Effects of labor migration on exporting countries and labor-importing countries.
remittances from abroad by emigrants of earned means increase GNP, favorably affect the state of the country’s balance of payments;
the costs of training, health care and other social expenditures that are covered for emigrants by other countries are reduced. The donor country saves on these expenses, while emigrants cease to pay taxes, which adversely affects budget revenues;
raising their qualifications and acquiring some experience abroad, re-emigrants bring their knowledge and experience to their homeland, as a result, the country from which the labor force migrates receives additional qualified additional personnel for free;
if the exporting country is labor-surplus, then the outflow of part of the labor force reduces unemployment, reduces social tensions in the country.
The consequences for the host country of migrants can be both positive and negative. One side:
When importing a skilled labor force, the country saves money for education and training. Highly qualified immigrants make a great contribution to the development of science, technology, medicine, etc .;
foreign workers present additional demand for goods and services, thus stimulating production growth and increasing employment;
if the labor of foreign workers is paid lower than domestic workers, the costs of production are reduced and the competitiveness of domestic goods is increased.
On the other hand, migrants increase spending of budgets of host countries, can create tension in the domestic labor market and in society as a whole. As a result of immigration, national, religious, ethnic problems may arise.
For the migrants themselves.
– losses associated with the move and the device in a new location.
For the producing countries.
– loss of a part (usually the best) of the labor resources of the society.
For host countries.
+ increase in the incomes of employers (foreign labor is cheaper)
For the world as a whole.
+ reduction of unemployment, increase in world output.
^ 1. The features of modern world labor markets are (choose the right answers):
Features of modern world labor markets are as follows [6, pp.256-257].
^ 2. Other things being equal, as a result of international labor migration, a net economic gain is obtained (choose the correct answer):
It is considered that migrants, their new employers abroad and workers who remain in the donor country benefit from the movement of labor; losses: competing workers in the host country and entrepreneurs in the donor country.
3. The consequences of international labor migration for the donor country (choose the correct answers):
The consequences of labor migration for the donor country, that is, the country from which the labor force migrates [2, p.417]:
remittances from abroad by emigrants of earned means increase GNP, favorably affect the state of the country’s balance of payments;
the costs of training, health care and other social expenditures that are covered for emigrants by other countries are reduced. The donor country saves on these expenses, while emigrants cease to pay taxes, which adversely affects budget revenues;
raising their qualifications and acquiring some experience abroad, re-emigrants bring their knowledge and experience to their homeland, as a result, the country from which the labor force migrates receives additional qualified additional personnel for free;
if the exporting country is labor-surplus, then the outflow of part of the labor force reduces unemployment, reduces social tensions in the country.
International migration flows affect the labor market. In the labor-surplus countries, part of the economically active population falls into the ranks of the unemployed, lives on transfer payments at the expense of other workers, exerts pressure on the labor market. In this case, emigration positively affects the labor market in the labor-exporting country.
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